Substance Abuse

Paramedics in the State of New Jersey are permitted to carry and administer buprenorphine to treat acute withdrawal symptoms after having had an opioid overdose reversed with naloxone. The directive, via Executive Order from the State Health Commissioner, simply added buprenorphine to the list of medications available to paramedics in the MICUs and required officials in each county to train paramedics on the protocol. ...

Research indicates that there is often a reluctance among those witnessing an overdose to summon emergency assistance from law enforcement or other first responders out of fear of arrest for drug possession or other charges. In an effort to reduce this fear and to encourage overdose witnesses to seek help, state policymakers developed Good Samaritan laws specific to drug overdoses. The purpose of these laws is to prioritize the overdose victim’s safety over arresting drug users by granting limited protection from criminal liability to persons seeking medical assistance and, in most cases, to the overdose victim. This document (1) provides a singular resource for each jurisdiction's laws; (2) allows for a comparison of these laws between jurisdictions; and (3) identifies and highlights interesting provisions. ...

The Addiction and Public Policy Initiative at the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law was established in 2018 through a generous grant from Arnold Ventures. Housed at Georgetown Law, the Addiction and Public Policy Initiative works at the intersection of public health and the law to advance a public health approach to substance use disorder and the overdose epidemic through legal and policy strategies that promote evidence-based treatment, harm reduction, and recovery. This reports highlights O'Neill's accomplishments over the last five years....

The Coordinated Opioid Recovery (CORE) Network, overseen by the Florida Department of Health, the Florida Department of Children and Families, and the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration establishes a system of care for individuals suffering from substance use disorder (SUD). CORE provides a state-supported, coordinated system of addiction care for individuals with SUD and has provided approximately 550,000 services to support patients since its inception in 2022....

The Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) is monitoring the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the streets of the United States. This fact sheet, which focuses on Xylazine, was originally the second in a series that highlights these dangerous drugs. This is an update to the original version....

Kratom is an herb derived from a leafy Southeast Asian tree and contains two psychoactive compounds that can bind to opioid receptors in the brain and produce a pharmacological response similar to effects produced by other opioid agonists, such as morphine. As of February 2024, 22 states and the District of Columbia regulate kratom. This document: (1) provides a singular resource for each jurisdiction’s laws; (2) allows for a comparison of these laws between jurisdictions; and (3) identifies and highlights interesting provisions. ...

These fact sheets provide guidance for overdose fatality review (OFR) teams, public safety and public health agencies utilizing the Overdose Detection Mapping Application Program (ODMAP), and law enforcement deflection partnership efforts on what can and cannot be legally shared regarding federal law (such as 42 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 2 and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA]). ...

Given the increased emphasis in recent years on using harm reduction strategies to slow the overdose crisis, the hurdle posed by state drug paraphernalia laws to freely allowing drug checking services or establishing syringe services programs is not inconspicuous. Accordingly, in 2022, LAPPA first undertook an extensive research project to determine how drug paraphernalia laws throughout the 50 states, District of Columbia, and all U.S. territories treat drug checking equipment (including fentanyl test strips and other items) and needles/syringes. This January 2024 version, which sets forth a summary of state and territory laws as of December 2023, is an update to the original report. ...

Total abstinence has historically been the goal of treatment for substance use disorders; however, there is a growing recognition of the health benefits associated with reduced use as a harm reduction measure in stimulant use disorders treatment. The researchers and authors of this report aimed to assess the validity of reduced stimulant use as an outcome measure in randomized controlled trials of pharmacological interventions for stimulant use disorder....