Fact Sheets

This fact sheet examines the racial disparities and stigma surrounding crack cocaine, established in the late 1980s, that continue to this day. The Fair Sentencing Act has helped to lessen the sentencing disparity between crack and powder cocaine, yet gaps remain. Passage of certain legislation, like the so-called EQUAL Act, would eliminate both the sentencing and racial disparity in cocaine sentencing still seen today in U.S. courts....

The Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) continues to monitor the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market in the United States. The term “novel” does not denote a brand new, never-before-seen substance but rather a substance that is newly available in the drug market. This fact sheet, the sixth in a series highlighting these dangerous drugs, is an examination of bromazolam....

This fact sheet summarizes a recent increase in the use of contingency management, a behavioral therapy that reinforces or rewards positive behavioral change. Often, mental health professionals use contingency management alongside other methods of treatment. In the context of substance use disorder treatment, patients typically receive something of monetary value to incentivize abstinence from drug use. Contingency management is a well-studied and effective method for treating substance use disorder, but until recently, received little support....

The Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) continues to monitor the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market in the United States. The term “novel” does not denote a brand new, never-before-seen substance but rather a substance that is newly available in the drug market. This fact sheet, the fifth in a series highlighting these dangerous drugs, is an examination of nitazenes....

Deflection is any collaborative intervention connecting law enforcement, other first responders, and community responders with public health systems to create pathways to treatment and services for individuals—with low to moderate criminogenic risk—who have a substance use disorder, mental health disorder, or co-occurring disorders and who often have other service needs. This fact sheet provides an overview of what deflection is, examples of initiatives utilizing one or more of the six recognized deflection pathways, and a brief description of the status of deflection-related laws in the United States....

This fact sheet addresses the growing misuse of ketamine, an anesthetic used medically in both humans and animals as a short-acting painkiller. Ketamine can produce dissociative sensations, feelings of euphoria, and hallucinations, and it is popular as a “club drug” among teens and young adults at dance clubs and raves. Most of the ketamine illicitly distributed in the U.S. is either diverted or stolen from legitimate sources, particularly veterinary clinics, or smuggled into the U.S. from Mexico....

This fact sheet addresses the issue of drug diversion in health care settings. Drug diversion is defined as any criminal act or deviation that removes a prescription drug from its intended path from the manufacturer to the patient, and while the act of diversion can occur in a variety of settings and be committed by anyone, it is particularly likely to occur in healthcare settings by healthcare workers due to the ease in which they can access prescription drugs. Drug diversion in health care is a serious issue that can result in patient harm, financial loss to the healthcare entity, and civil and criminal litigation based on the perpetrator’s actions....

The Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) is monitoring the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market in the United States. The term “novel” does not denote a new, never-before-seen substance but rather a substance that is newly available in the drug market. This fact sheet, the fourth in a series highlighting these potentially dangerous drugs, examines isotonitazene, a synthetic opioid recently classified as a Schedule I controlled substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act....