Public Safety

These fact sheets provide guidance for overdose fatality review (OFR) teams, public safety and public health agencies utilizing the Overdose Detection Mapping Application Program (ODMAP), and law enforcement deflection partnership efforts on what can and cannot be legally shared regarding federal law (such as 42 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 2 and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA]). ...

Given the increased emphasis in recent years on using harm reduction strategies to slow the overdose crisis, the hurdle posed by state drug paraphernalia laws to freely allowing drug checking services or establishing syringe services programs is not inconspicuous. Accordingly, in 2022, LAPPA first undertook an extensive research project to determine how drug paraphernalia laws throughout the 50 states, District of Columbia, and all U.S. territories treat drug checking equipment (including fentanyl test strips and other items) and needles/syringes. This January 2024 version, which sets forth a summary of state and territory laws as of December 2023, is an update to the original report. ...

In an effort to save lives, states have implemented laws to make it easier for first responders and the general public to obtain opioid antagonists, such as naloxone. Additionally, to encourage people to assist an individual who is or may be suffering an overdose, the majority of states also enacted laws which protect laypeople who administer opioid antagonists, in good faith, in an emergency from civil and/or criminal liability. The Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) undertook an extensive research project to determine the current status of opioid antagonist access laws throughout the United States, including the District of Columbia and all U.S. territories. As of August 2020, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have some form of an opioid antagonist access law. ...

In this survey, the Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) examines the legislative and regulatory response at the state level to the issue of fentanyl cleanup. As at the federal level, there is little policy in this area, and the only exceptions to that rule are very recent. Findings are presented jurisdiction by jurisdiction for easy comparison among the states....

In this document, the Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association examines state-level legislative and administrative responses to the public health risk posed by expired and unused prescription medications. In the last several years, states, in coordination with the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) have enacted legislation or promulgated administrative regulations to authorize drug take-back programs where expired or unused pharmaceuticals can be collected from the public by authorized persons and disposed of in a safe manner. Findings are presented by state for ease of comparison....

Syringe services programs (SSP) are harm reduction programs that provide a wide range of services including, but not typically limited to, the provision of new, unused hypodermic needles and syringes and other injection drug use supplies, such as cookers, tourniquets, alcohol wipes, and sharps waste disposal containers, to people who inject drugs. In this summary, readers will find information with respect to SSPs for each state, including citations to applicable statutes and/or regulations, whether the state allows SSPs by statute, whether there are any municipal or county ordinances or regulations in place within the state, program components, miscellaneous provisions, and information on any pending legislation....

Deflection is any collaborative intervention connecting law enforcement, other first responders, and community responders with public health systems to create pathways to treatment and services for individuals—with low to moderate criminogenic risk—who have a substance use disorder, mental health disorder, or co-occurring disorders and who often have other service needs. This fact sheet provides an overview of what deflection is, examples of initiatives utilizing one or more of the six recognized deflection pathways, and a brief description of the status of deflection-related laws in the United States....

This fact sheet addresses the issue of drug diversion in health care settings. Drug diversion is defined as any criminal act or deviation that removes a prescription drug from its intended path from the manufacturer to the patient, and while the act of diversion can occur in a variety of settings and be committed by anyone, it is particularly likely to occur in healthcare settings by healthcare workers due to the ease in which they can access prescription drugs. Drug diversion in health care is a serious issue that can result in patient harm, financial loss to the healthcare entity, and civil and criminal litigation based on the perpetrator’s actions....