Substance Abuse

The Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) continues to monitor the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market in the United States. The term “novel” does not denote a brand new, never-before-seen substance but rather a substance that is newly available in the drug market. This fact sheet, the fifth in a series highlighting these dangerous drugs, is an examination of nitazenes....

In this survey, the Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) examines the legislative and regulatory response at the state level to the issue of fentanyl cleanup. As at the federal level, there is little policy in this area, and the only exceptions to that rule are very recent. Findings are presented jurisdiction by jurisdiction for easy comparison among the states....

In this document, the Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association examines state-level legislative and administrative responses to the public health risk posed by expired and unused prescription medications. In the last several years, states, in coordination with the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) have enacted legislation or promulgated administrative regulations to authorize drug take-back programs where expired or unused pharmaceuticals can be collected from the public by authorized persons and disposed of in a safe manner. Findings are presented by state for ease of comparison....

Syringe services programs (SSP) are harm reduction programs that provide a wide range of services including, but not typically limited to, the provision of new, unused hypodermic needles and syringes and other injection drug use supplies, such as cookers, tourniquets, alcohol wipes, and sharps waste disposal containers, to people who inject drugs. In this summary, readers will find information with respect to SSPs for each state, including citations to applicable statutes and/or regulations, whether the state allows SSPs by statute, whether there are any municipal or county ordinances or regulations in place within the state, program components, miscellaneous provisions, and information on any pending legislation....

This report from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, details guidelines that local government officials, jail administrators, correctional officers, and health care professionals can use in providing effective health care for adults who are sentenced or awaiting sentencing to jail, awaiting court action on a current charge, or being held in custody for other reasons....

Deflection is any collaborative intervention connecting law enforcement, other first responders, and community responders with public health systems to create pathways to treatment and services for individuals—with low to moderate criminogenic risk—who have a substance use disorder, mental health disorder, or co-occurring disorders and who often have other service needs. This fact sheet provides an overview of what deflection is, examples of initiatives utilizing one or more of the six recognized deflection pathways, and a brief description of the status of deflection-related laws in the United States....

This fact sheet addresses the growing misuse of ketamine, an anesthetic used medically in both humans and animals as a short-acting painkiller. Ketamine can produce dissociative sensations, feelings of euphoria, and hallucinations, and it is popular as a “club drug” among teens and young adults at dance clubs and raves. Most of the ketamine illicitly distributed in the U.S. is either diverted or stolen from legitimate sources, particularly veterinary clinics, or smuggled into the U.S. from Mexico....

This fact sheet addresses the issue of drug diversion in health care settings. Drug diversion is defined as any criminal act or deviation that removes a prescription drug from its intended path from the manufacturer to the patient, and while the act of diversion can occur in a variety of settings and be committed by anyone, it is particularly likely to occur in healthcare settings by healthcare workers due to the ease in which they can access prescription drugs. Drug diversion in health care is a serious issue that can result in patient harm, financial loss to the healthcare entity, and civil and criminal litigation based on the perpetrator’s actions....

The Legislative Analysis and Public Policy Association (LAPPA) is monitoring the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market in the United States. The term “novel” does not denote a new, never-before-seen substance but rather a substance that is newly available in the drug market. This fact sheet, the fourth in a series highlighting these potentially dangerous drugs, examines isotonitazene, a synthetic opioid recently classified as a Schedule I controlled substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act....